конструктор мебель на заказ

конструктор мебель на заказ
Background and History
The term “Bamar” or “Burman” refers to the largest and culturally dominant ethnic group of Myanmar. The term “Burmese” refers to the language and culture of the Burmans, as well as to the other citizens of Myanmar. The Bamar live in the central plains between the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers in the country of Myanmar (formerly Burma), having settled there from the Tibetan plateau in the 9th century AD. In 849 Bagan was founded кухни на заказ ростов на дону and мейд the capital of the Bamar Kingdom, but it wasn’t until 1044 that the производство мягкой мебели на заказ first Bamar empire was formed under King Anawratha. Buddhism was конструктор мебель на заказ introduced into the country from Sri Lanka at about the same time.
150 years later, the invading Mongols under Kublai Khan destroyed Bagan, and the country disintegrated into three small states for the next three centuries. In 1551, King Bayintnaung reconquered former territories and founded the second Bamar Empire, which slowly fell apart after his death.
Two centuries later, King Alaungpaya of Shwebo managed to reunite the country again to form the third empire. Western influence began with trade in the 17th century, but turned into annexation by the British in three stages between 1824 and 1886. National leaders came to prominence in the early part of the 20th century, the most famous being Myanmar’s national hero General Aung San. Starting his career as a young student at Rangoon university, he developed and led the independence movement. During World War II, General Aung San headed up the Thirty Comrades, a group which resisted British and Japanese rule. The Burma Independence Army (BIA) finally liberated the country from the Japanese in 1945. After the war, the Nationalists negotiated independence from the British. However, General Aung San and some of his cabinet ministers were assassinated in July 1948, barely six months after independence.
Bamar Language, Culture and Religion
Over the centuries, the Bamar have become the dominant people group in Myanmar, providing leadership in the political, religious and intellectual life of the country. With around 38 million people they form the majority ethnic group in a country of about 50 million people. The remaining population is divided into five main minority groups, the Shan, Karen, Kachin, Rakhine and Chin. Over 100 more ethnic groups complete the multi-colored ethnic picture of the country. The language spoken by the Bamar is called Burmese, a part of the конструктор мебель на заказ Tibeto-Burmese language family and a sub-family of Sino-Tibetan. It is monosyllabic with two tones. The script is formed by an конструктор мебель на заказ alphabet that consists of 38 letters, formed by various combinations of circles and semi-circles. The Bamar are highly literate – official estimates put the literacy rate at 82% – as a result of the traditional monastic learning where boys and girls go to the local monastery to be taught how to read and write. The government schools have now largely replaced this system. University education has seen a good deal of reorganization in recent years, breaking up the older institutions into smaller units.
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Bamar culture revolves around конструктор мебель на заказ a lifecycle of ceremonies or rites of passage, including births, engagements, marriages and birthdays, but also sickness and death. A great deal of time, money and energy is expended in planning ceremonies and celebrations, but helpers are always plentiful on these occasions and relatives are expected to assist the family during the preparations. One of the most important occasions in a boy’s life is the “shinpyu” ceremony when, for a short Арт деко period of time, he becomes a novice monk in the local Buddhist monastery. This can be for a few days to a week or more.
Family ties are strong and families tend to be extended rather than nuclear. Privacy for an individual is minimal. The mother holds the purse-strings. Relatives who come and visit are welcomed for however long, but are expected to help out wherever they can. Women are seen to be equal to men, having the same rights in society. Being a Bamar is synonymous to being a Buddhist – this is certainly true for the great majority of the people.
Of the two main streams конструктор мебель на заказ in Buddhism – Mahayana and Theravada – the Bamar abide to the latter. Theravada teaches that enlightenment – the final stage of the cycles of incarnations – can only be obtained through monkshood in one’s previous life. Theravada Buddhists believe in the concept of karma, according to which good begets good and evil begets evil. Every thought, word or act is believed to have an effect on one’’ karma, which literally means “intention”. Thus, it is not simply what we do that influences our lives, but also the intentions behind the deed.
Meditation is practiced by most adults, either at home before the family shrine, in the pagoda, or at one of the many meditation centers.
Supplementary to the Buddhist worldview are belief systems involved in crisis management, prediction and divination. Spirits (“Nats”) are the most important of these systems.
These spirits are mainly malevolent and must be propitiated at stated times and places to avoid harm and evil. Many Buddhist pagodas are either built on old Nat shrines, or else the Nat shrines are incorporated into the Buddhist structure.
Astrology is another important element in the belief system. Astrologers are consulted for any кухни на заказ томск important event or crisis in one’s life.

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